Results from new design of enclosures

UV-B levels inside vs. outside (measured simultaneously)

UV-Index comparison


UV levels in microwatts

Heating properties


First, a recap on the problem. This is typically the situation under basking lamps:

Hotspot under lamp

The 'red' areas here show cutaneous fluids responding to the infra-red and absorbing excess heat.

Subcutaneous fluids responding to infra-red

In extreme cases this can result in:

Thermal trauma from basking lamp


These are results (for comparison) obtained within the new housing designs:

Even, deep heating effect from WiRA

The heat is even distributed through the entire body, even reaching the underside (plastron, on a tortoise):

Plastron and extremity heating effect

This deeply penetrating, even heating effect is typical of sunlight and WiRa compared to the infrared generated by normal basking lamps.

Some more examples..

Whole body distribution..

vs. typical localised heating from 160w MV lamp. Note especially extremities in 'shaded' side. Most of this heat is concentrated on the surface.

MV Lamp

Again... basking lamp heat distribution....

Basking lamp heat distribution

In wild tortoises, heat is distributed extremely evenly. This can be checked even with simple tools:

Wild TGG

Plastron temperature:

Plastron temperature

Carapace temperature:

Carapace temperature

IR thermograph of above animal:

IR image of wild tortoise


Results from inside experimental housing system:

Heat distribution with histogram

Histogram of carapace temps



All images (c) copyright Tortoise Trust 2014.